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Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI)

Few things have blossomed as quickly as animal assisted interventions (AAI) have during the past several years. Animal assisted interventions is a broad term which is now widely used to describe the utilisation of various species of animals in diverse manners beneficial to humans. It is always a therapy option for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are different types of AAI such as animal assisted therapy, education and activities. AAI is conducted or delivered by a specialist practitioner together with a trained animal, in conjunction with an education professional, for instance, therapists, teacher, healthcare provider or support worker in order to enhance the improvements of physical, social skills, cognitive functioning and emotional of a person. In short, AAI is actually designed to improve the quality of life and it promotes a range of other than therapeutic or educational benefits. Besides that, AAI may be provided in a variety of setting like in group or individual in nature, or implemented for persons of any age.

         
The benefits of AAI for people of all ages and in many circumstances are remarkable. Research stated that the presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies and also the reported outcomes included improvements for multiple areas of functioning known to be impaired in ASD, namely increased social interaction and communication as well as decreased problem behaviors, autistic severity, and stress. Additionally, some literatures suggest that AAI seems to benefit significantly to the old folks, people with depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and children with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or cancer. Some studies also found that children with autism interact more socially and smile more around animals. This is due to the presence of animals causes people may be more likely to engage socially. Other than that, animals are often sought for the ability to focus attention. For example, one study reported that autistic children looked longer at the faces of dog compared to the faces of humans. Therefore, the presence of animals may be a way to keep a child attentive to the intervention. Most importantly, animals are perceived as providing non-judgmental companionship. This component of AAI is particularly essential to autistic children that are commonly at a higher risk for stress and bullying by peers, especially during the school age years.

Source:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23124442
https://vet.purdue.edu/chab/ohaire/autism.php
http://www.play-therapy.com/playfulpooch/images_resources/HUMANE.in.AAI.article-RV.pdf

动物辅助干预(AAI)

在过去的几年中,很少有事情像动物辅助干预(AAI)那样迅速发展。动物辅助干预是一个广义的术语,现在广泛用于描述以使用各种动物对人类有益的方式。对于患有孤独症谱系障碍(ASD)的儿童,它是其中一种治疗选择。AAI有不同的类型,如动物辅助治疗,教育和活动。 AAI通常由专业从业者与受过训练的动物一起由教育专业人员(例如治疗师,教师,医疗保健提供者或其他工作者)进行或提供,以加强身体,社交技能,加强认知功能和情感。简而言之,AAI实际上旨在改善生活质量,并促进一系列治疗或教育以外的益处。除此之外,AAI可以在各种环境中提供,如团体或个人性质,或为任何年龄的人实施。

AAI对所有年龄段和许多情况下的人们有着显著的好处。根据研究表明,AAI呈现不同的变化。此外,报告的结果还包括ASD已知功能受损的多个功能区域的改善,即社交互动和沟通增加以及问题行为减少,自闭症严重程度和压力也下降。此外,一些文献表明,AAI似乎对老年人,患有抑郁症或创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)的人以及自闭儿,注意力缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)或癌症的儿童有显着益处。一些研究还发现,患有自闭症的儿童在社交方面的互动更多,并且更常对动物微笑。这也许是由于动物的存在让人们更愿意打开心扉及参与社交活动。除此之外,动物经常有让人集中注意力的能力。例如,一项研究报告说,与人类面部相比,自闭症儿童停留在狗狗的视线会更长。因此,动物的存在可以让孩子专注在治疗中。最重要的是,动物不会歧视,所以能提供孩子更好的陪伴。使用动物在AAI对于自闭症儿童尤其重要,因为他们通常在学龄期间面临同龄人的压力和欺凌风险。