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Baking

Guess what! Baking is not only a hobby, but also considered as one of the therapies for children with autism. Teaching children how to bake is a great educational bonding activity. Baking and using recipes provides the chance to work on some skills such as reading skills, listening skills, sequencing skills and math skills (particularly for measuring and adjusting recipes). Additionally, parents can introduce the concept of nutrition, portioning, and using kitchen equipment through baking, all of which are important and useful skills for children to learn at any age. Also, baking is a good activity which enriches the sensory experience of autistic children by exposing them to different scents, textures and sounds.

Here are some ways listed below to make baking a sensory activity for children:

  1. Expose to different textures of foods through touch. For example. A banana is smooth, a kiwi has a furry skin while an avocado has a bumpy skin. Parents can try to put some ingredients in a box and ask children to close their eyes, let them sense the texture of different food.
  2. Expose to different textures of foods through taste. For instance, parents can ask the children to close their eyes and feed them a particular food. After that, let children to describe the texture and taste of the food such as the banana is mushy and a carrot is crunchy. 
  3. Play soft classical music during baking time.  Using classical music can help relax children so they can focus on the task at hand.
  4. Let children try the heavy work. This can be rolling out dough, mashing bananas or kneading dough. All of these activities can help a child staying attentive to the task.
  5. Use different ingredients to enhance the sensory experience. For example, use cool whip to top a cupcake and leave some leftover for your child to explore. Put some chocolate chips or nuts in there to add texture and increase complexity.
  6. Expose children to different temperatures of ingredients. For example, when making scones, children can try to use very cold butter. For other recipes, it can be melted butter that is slightly warm. One thing to take note that expose the children by having them touch certain ingredients with parental supervision, make sure something is not too hot.
  7. Make cleanup as a fun water play time! When washing the dishes and utensils, fill the sink with soap and water and let children play with the water. This will be fun and they will also be getting the everything clean!

On the other hand, here are several tips for making baking an educational and fun experience as well:

1. Choice matters: Choose a favourite food and flavour
Choose the food (can be cake, bread or cookies) that children love to eat and making the flavour which children go bananas for is something that will probably attract and hold their attention longer. This could as simple as making a chocolate and butter sandwich. If children do not want to eat what they are baking, then it seems difficult for them to engage in the activity.

2. Keep it simple and concrete
After choosing the most suitable dish, present the recipe in a manner that children can understand easily. The text should be direct without all the fluffy language to avoid any confusion. If the child is an avid reader, then having a recipe with only text would encourage them to practise reading skills. Besides that, let children to demonstrate what the instructions are asking before proceed to the next step. This is to confirm that they understand the process without visual aid. It is always great to ask question along the way so the children will not get confused. However, many autistic children are strong visual learners. If that is the case, it would be wise to show them the recipe with pictures included. Pictorial recipes will lead the children to follow along with parents as parents are giving them instructions on the preparation. Visuals are a good way to allow children follow step-by-step directions when they have not mastered reading comprehension yet. Moreover, parents can also make the learning sequencing cards which showing the sequence involved in making breads, cakes, cookies, sandwich, etc. These cards provide children with visual clues of what comes next in the sequence and the clear images provide a literal way for children with autism to learn steps needed for baking.

3. Making it fun  
Before the actual baking starts, it is essential to spend time clarifying basic vocabulary. If the children is already savvy with the ingredients being used, the baking session will be conducted much easier and smoothly.

4. Hygiene
When the children have learned the names of ingredients, it would be wise to talk about the importance of hygiene and food safety procedures. Demonstrating these good habits is a great way for children to follow and develop them. For young children this could mean teaching them how to wash their hands properly before and after handling any food. As for those elders, it could be showing them how to wear oven mitts, being instructed to wash their hands before baking and after handling flour, proper handling of food when serving, etc.

5. Complimentary Task
Allocate the baking task that compliment the children’s strengths. Parents can let children to do what they want to do, but it would be great to be cognizant of their skill set so they can perform well. For instance, if the child is good at measuring then parents can have them begin with measuring the weight and volume of ingredients. Children need to earn the opportunity to build up their skills so they can proceed to more difficult tasks. Mastering the easier skills could allow them gain confidence, and accomplishing the harder task will be a much easier process after that. There are different roles which can go into baking project from setting the oven temperature, stirring, using a mixer/ blender, measuring ingredients and timing.

Source:
http://blog.stageslearning.com/blog/7-tips-for-teaching-your-child-with-autism-to-cook
https://gravitybread.com/baking/how-to-make-cooking-a-sensory-experience/
https://www.autismspeaks.org/node/11451
https://www.pinterest.com/theautismhelper/visual-recipes-for-children-with-autism/

烘培治疗

你知道吗? 烘焙不仅是一种爱好,也被认为是自闭症儿童的治疗方法之一 。教导孩子如何烘培是一项极具教育性的亲子活动。烘焙和使用食谱有机会学习一些技能,如阅读技巧,听力技巧,测序技巧和数学技能(特别是测量和调整食谱)。此外,父母可以通过烘焙引入营养,分配和使用厨房设备的概念,所有这些都是儿童在任何年龄学习的重要和有用的技能。此外,烘焙是一项很好的活动。通过将它们暴露于不同的气味,质地和声音,丰富了自闭症儿童的感官体验。 以下列出了一些方法,使烘焙成为儿童的感官活动:

1.触摸不同质地的食物。例如。香蕉是光滑的,奇异果有毛茸茸的皮肤,而牛油果有不平整的皮肤。父母可以尝试将一些食材放入盒子里,让孩子闭上眼睛,感受不同食物的质地。

2.尝试不同质地的食物。例如,父母可以让孩子闭上眼睛喂他们特定的食物。在那之后,让孩子描述食物的质地和味道,例如香蕉是糊状的,胡萝卜是松脆的。

3.在烘焙时间播放柔和的古典音乐。使用古典音乐可以帮助孩子放松,这样他们就可以专注于手上的任务。

让孩子尝试重要的工作。这可以是捣碎香蕉或揉面团。这些活动都可以帮助孩子保持专注。

5.使用不同的材料来增强感官体验。例如,使用奶油抹在蛋糕上,剩余的一些可以让孩子去尝试。在里面放一些巧克力片或坚果,以增加质感,增加复杂性。

6.让孩子接触不同温度的食材。例如,在制作烤饼时,孩子可以尝试使用非常冷的黄油。对于其他食谱,父母可以使用稍微温暖的融化黄油。有一点需要注意的是,让孩子在父母的监督下接触某些成分,以确保孩子不会被烫伤。

7.让清理成为一个有趣的游戏时间!洗碗和餐具时,用肥皂和水填充水槽,让孩子玩水。这将很有趣,他们也将把一切都干净!

另一方面,这里有几个使烘焙成为教育和有趣体验的技巧:

1. 做决定:选择最喜欢的食物和口味
选择孩子喜欢吃的食物(可以是蛋糕,面包或饼干)并吸引他们的注意力。这可以像制作巧克力和黄油三明治一样简单。如果孩子不想吃他们正在烘焙的东西,那么他们很难投入这项活动。

2. 保持简单和具体
选择最合适的菜肴后,以儿童可以轻松理解的方式呈现食谱。食谱内容应该直接,没有复杂多余的话,以避免任何混淆。如果孩子是狂热的读者,那么只有文字的食谱会鼓励他们练习阅读技巧。除此之外,让孩子在进行下一步之前演示说明书的内容。这是为了确认他们在没有视觉辅助的情况下理解该过程。在阅读的过程中发问是很棒的注意,这样就可以减少孩子的困惑。然而,许多自闭症儿童是视觉学习者。如果是这种情况,最好向他们展示包含图片的食谱。图片食谱将引导孩子跟随父母给他们指导。视觉效果是让孩子在尚未掌握阅读理解力的情况下按照分步指导的好方法。此外,父母还可以制作学习排序卡片,其中显示了制作面包,蛋糕,饼干,三明治等所涉及的顺序。这些卡片为儿童提供了序列中下一步的视觉线索,清晰的图像提供了一种文字的方式让自闭症儿童学习烘焙所需的步骤。

3. 让它变得有趣
在实际烘焙开始之前,花时间解释基本词汇是必不可少的。 如果孩子已经精通所使用的成分,那么烘焙过程将更容易和顺利进行。

4. 卫生
当孩子学会了食材的名称时,那么就是时候谈论卫生和食品安全程序的重要性了。想要孩子培养这些好习惯就必须让他们适应及实践。对于幼儿来说,这可以是教他们在处理任何食物之前和之后如何正确地洗手。至于那些年龄较大的孩子,父母可以向他们展示如何穿戴烤箱手套,指示在烘烤前和处理面粉后洗手,在准备时正确处理食物等。

5. “赞许”任务
根据孩子的优势分配烘培任务,让后赞许他们。父母可以让孩子做他们想做的事,但是能够了解到他们的技能,以便他们能够表现得好。例如,如果孩子擅长测量,那么父母可以让他们从测量成分的重量和体积开始。儿童需要有机会积累技能,以便他们能够完成更艰巨的任务。掌握更容易的技能可以让孩子获得信心,之后让他们完成更艰巨的任务将是一个更容易的过程。通过设置烘箱温度,搅拌,使用混合器/搅拌器,测量成分和时间,可以进入烘焙项目中的不同角色。