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Dance/Movement Therapy

According to American Dance Therapy association (ADTA), Dance/Movement therapy (DMT) is defined as the psychotherapeutic use of movement to promote emotional, social, cognitive and physical integration of the individual. DMT focuses on movement behavior as it emerges in the therapeutic relationship. With body movement as the core component of dance, it provides the means of assessment and the mode of intervention for DMT at the same time. DMT is useful and effective for individuals with developmental, medical, social, physical and psychological impairments.

A dance/movement therapy has an extensive range of techniques to meet the needs and abilities of special needs children. DMT has included from subtle and ordinary movement behaviors to expressive, improvisational dancing. DMT is a flexible form of therapy based on the idea that motion and emotion are interconnected. Through the creative expression of dance therapy, communication skills and dynamic relationships can be improved.

How does dance help with special needs children?

  • Enhances body awareness
    Children with sensory processing disorder or other similar difficulties often don’t understand parts of their body and how they function. For instance, children with these difficulties might look clumsy and stumble around. Through dance and movement, children with special needs can be more aware of their body parts when they move their body.
  • Improve fine and gross motor skills
    When children dance, they need to be aware of the space around them, align their bodies or to follow particular movement patterns which involve gross and fine motor control. Children with special needs are practicing these skills when they are taught to dance.
  • Promoting social interaction
    By having large group dances or partner dances, children with special needs will have to place trust in their peers. They might be required to give some eye contact or appropriately touch a peer where some children with special needs often face difficulties doing these.
  • Dance is not just a physical activity, but also it is a form of creative expression.  
    Children with special needs often have a hard time in expressing themselves or understanding emotions, hence by dancing it gives children a chance to break out of their shells and express themselves in an interesting, calming and relaxing way.                        

Autism Movement therapy
Specially for individuals with autism, Joanne Lara who is the founder of Autism Movement Therapy combined dance and movement to come out with a strategy for cognitive redirection. As autistic individuals have troubles accessing or retrieving information, this sensory integration strategy connects both the left and right hemispheres of the brain by combining patterning, visual movement calculation, audile receptive processing, rhythm and sequencing into a “whole brain” cognitive thinking approach. Autism Movement Therapy aims to improve an individual to be more compliant when asked to complete on-task activities and to interact with typical general education peers more frequently after 12 to 14 weeks of one to two of sessions a week. It aims to improve behavioral, emotional, academic, social and speech, and language skills as well. This program is available through live classes or instructional DVD.

Special needs children have the common symptoms of poor attention, difficulty interacting with peers, limited body awareness. Activities for special needs children like expression through dance or participating in group movement can help to improve these difficulties and put them on the level of their neurotypical peers.

Source(s) :
https://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/types/dance-movement-therapy
https://adta.org/
http://www.specialneeds.com/activities/general-special-needs/activities-special-needs-children-expression-through
http://www.specialneeds.com/products-and-services/autism/what-autism-movement-therapy
https://www.autismmovementtherapy.com/about

舞蹈/运动治疗(DMT)


根据美国舞蹈治疗协会(ADTA),舞蹈/运动治疗(DMT)被定义为通过运动的心理治疗,以促进个人的情感,社交,认知和身体整合。 DMT专注于治疗关系中出现的运动行为。以身体运动为舞蹈的核心组成部分,同时为DMT提供评估手段和干预模式。DMT对于患有发育,内科,社交,身体和心理障碍的患者是有效的。

DMT具有广泛的技巧来满足特殊儿童的需求和能力,包括从微妙和普通的运动行为到表现力的即兴舞蹈。此外,它是一种灵活的治疗形式,基于运动和情感相互关联的理念。通过DMT的创造性表达,可以提高沟通技巧和动态关系。

舞蹈如何帮助特殊儿童?

  • 提高自身的身体意识

患有感觉统合失调症或其它类似障碍的儿童通常不了解他们的身体部位及其功能。例如,患有这类型障碍的儿童可能看起来很笨拙并且蹒跚而行。通过舞蹈和运动,特殊儿童在移动身体时可以更加了解自己的身体部位。

  • 提高大小肌肉的运动技能

当孩子们跳舞时,他们需要了解周围的空间,对齐他们的身体或遵循特定的运动模式,这些运动模式涉及严格和精细的运动控制。有特殊需要的儿童在被教导跳舞时会练习这些技能。

  • 促进社交互动

通过大型团体舞蹈或双人舞蹈,有特殊需要的孩子将不得不信任他们的同龄人。这样的舞蹈需要他们进行一些目光接触或适当接触同伴。舞蹈不仅仅是一种身体活动,也是一种创造性表达形式。特殊儿童往往很难表达自己或理解情绪,因此通过跳舞,孩子们有机会用自己感兴趣及放松的方式突破自己建立的壳子,表达自己的想法。

自闭症运动疗法
专门为自闭症患者而设,自闭症运动治疗的创始人Joanne Lara将舞蹈和运动结合起来,提出了一种认知重定向策略。由于自闭症患者难以获取或检索信息,这种感觉统合策略通过将模式,视觉运动计算,听觉接受处理,节奏和排序结合到“全脑”认知思维方法中来连接大脑的左半球和右半球。自闭症运动治疗希望达到的目标是在被要求完成任务活动并在每周的一到两个疗程的12到14周后更频繁地与典型的普通教育同伴互动时,使患者更加顺从。它的目的在于改善行为,情感,学术,社交和言语以及语言技能。该计划可通过现场课程或教学DVD获得。

特殊儿童有共同的症状,像是注意力不集中,与同龄人交往困难,身体意识有限。针对特殊儿童的活动,如通过舞蹈表达或参加群体运动,可以帮助改善这些困难,并使他们达到他们的神经典型同龄人的水平。