Occupational therapy (OT) is a health and rehabilitation profession that aids people across the lifespan to do the things they want and need to do through the therapeutic use of daily activities (occupations).Other than human growth and development, occupational therapists study the interaction of people with the environment through the activities carry out in daily life. These therapists expert in the social, emotional, and physiological effects of illness and injury, enables them promote skills for independent, productive and satisfying living in people of all ages who need specialized assistance. Overall, occupational therapists have a holistic perspective, in which their focus is on adapting the environment and task to fit the person, and the person is an integral part of the therapy team. It is an evidence-based practice deeply rooted in science.
OT has numerous advantages and hence, it is commonly used for a wide range of diseases and disorders, especially for children with ASD. With the help of occupational therapy, children can have improvement in development, enhance cognitive, communication and social skills, and minimised developmental delay. The therapy is carried out according to the child’s disability or condition. The therapists will evaluate the child and then set out a therapy procedure to improve the processing and enable new learning. Some benefits of OT have been found are as follows:
1. Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD):
The disease autism and sensory processing disorder (SPD) are somewhat related but are not same. Children with SPD may not suffer from autism, but the reverse may be true. The child who suffering from SPD has problem in communicating with other people, limited play skills, less interest in activities and so on. By observing the children’s behaviors, the occupational therapists can develop a plan for them in order to help them gain these skills. Of course the therapist uses different sets of methods and plans, and there is no such single ideal program. These may include activities to help with interaction, puzzles to develop coordination and awareness and more.
2. General Activities in Daily Life:
Occupational therapy provides help to the children facing difficulties in daily activities such as brushing, dressing, toileting, eating, writing or/and drawing. Under the occupational therapy, these children can develop these self-help skills and their quality of life can be improved as well.
3. Sensory Processing Issues:
Generally, it can be seen that children with sensory processing issues have troubles to synthesize information in the basic five senses which are sight, smell, touch, hear, and taste. These children may experience over-sensitivity, under-sensitivity, or both at different places such as home, school, or anywhere. They often feel difficulty in paying attention and easily get distracted by a loud fire alarm and other such things. Besides , they also try to avoid recess and activities going on around them. Occupational therapy are able to help them to regain the skills and address the issue in a proper manner.
4. Gross and Fine Motor Skills:
Gross motor skill involves the movement of big muscles in arms, legs, etc. whereas fine muscle skills involve the use of small muscles in forearm and fingers. Children who having difficulties with these skills may experience trouble in walking, cycling, taking small things and others. Occupational therapy can be used to deal with the condition and eventually eradicate it.
职业治疗（OT）是一种健康和康复专业，它帮助人们在整个生命周期中通过日常活动（职业）的治疗用途来做他们想要和需要做的事情。除了人类的成长和发展，职业治疗师也通过日常活动研究人类与环境的互动。这些治疗师在社交技能、情感和生理影响方面具有专业知识，使他们能够在需要专业帮助的所有年龄段的人中学习独立，高效和理想的生活技能。 总的来说，职业治疗师有一个整体的观点，他们的重点是适应环境和任务以配合接受治疗的人，而人是治疗团队不可分割的一部分。 这是一种深深植根于科学的循证实践。
OT具有许多优点，因此，它通常用于广泛的疾病和病症，特别是对于患有ASD的儿童。 在职业治疗的帮助下，儿童可以改善发育，增强认知，沟通和社交技能，并最大限度地减少发育迟缓。 所有的治疗是根据孩子的残疾或状况进行。治疗师将评估孩子，然后制定治疗程序，以改善处理和实现新的学习。 已发现OT的一些好处如下：
4.粗大和精细（大和小）运动技能：粗大运动技能涉及手臂，腿等大肌肉的运动，而精细肌肉技能则涉及在前臂和手指中使用小肌肉。 遇到这些技能困难的儿童在步行，骑自行车，小东西等方面可能会遇到麻烦。 职业治疗可用于处理病情并最终根除病情。