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Orff Music Therapy

Orff music therapy is an approach to music therapy developed in Germany by Gerturd Orff within the specific clinical setting of social pediatrics on the basis of Orff-Schulwerk. As the intention of music therapy is to support children with developmental problems in terms of emotional development, the name “Orff Music Therapy” was coined. In Germany, it is used in numerous institutions for children and adolescents with developmental disabilities. With time, music therapists are beginning to put the method to use with handicapped adults.

Some elements of Orff-Schulwerk that are useful in the application of Orff music therapy with developmentally-disabled children :

  • Music is understood in the sense of musiké
    Musiké – a total presentation in word, sound and movement
    “Playing with sounds,” role play and rhythmic or melodic performance are examples of music in the sense of musiké. The word “music” is understood in its broadest sense that makes it possible to include children with developmental disabilities to participate actively in the musical therapy setting.
  • Improvisation
    Through spontaneous play and making music, improvisation provides a creative stimulus for the child. It lets children to explore and investigate, to assemble the sounds or objects, to “practice” by playing and to form associations.
  • Instrumentarium
    The Orff instruments used are known to be other string instruments, keyboard instruments and percussion instruments. These instruments provide a means of interacting socially in the music therapy setting and encourage active participation of a child. In addition, non-musical materials like scarves, hand puppets, balls, chalk boards have their place within the instrumentarium used in Orff Music Therapy. Children can use these materials within the play situation to express themselves in the sense of music.
  • Multisensory aspects of music
    Aspects of music such as modalities, acoustical aspects can help the therapist to meet the needs of the child. For example, the combination of modalities can help children to feel the sound while hearing it. Moreover, activities like letting marbles roll along a metallophon into a hand drum or playing a drum so that balls will fly off it are not limited to the acoustical aspects of music. It also serves as a motivation for a child to interact, even if the child is still unwilling or unable to participate in musical activities.

Orff instruments :
       

Source(s) :
https://www.voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/134/110
https://www.thoughtco.com/the-orff-approach-2456422

 

奥尔夫音乐治疗

奥尔夫音乐治疗是德国Gerturd Orff根据Orff-Schulwerk的基础上在社会儿科的特定临床环境中开发的音乐治疗方法。由于音乐治疗的目的是为了支持在情绪发展方面存在发育问题的儿童,因此创造了“奥尔夫音乐治疗”这一名称。在德国,它被用于许多发育障碍儿童和青少年的机构。随着时间的推移,音乐治疗师开始将这种方法用于残障成年人。

Orff-Schulwerk的一些元素可用于奥尔夫音乐治疗与发育障碍儿童:

  • 音乐是在音乐的意义上理解的

Musiké – 完整的文字,声音和动作

“播放声音”,角色扮演和节奏或旋律表演是音乐意义上的音乐的例子。 “音乐”这个词在其最广泛的意义上被理解,使得有可能包括有发育障碍的儿童积极参与音乐治疗环境。

  • 即兴

通过自发的游戏和制作音乐,即兴创作为孩子提供了创造性的刺激。它让孩子们通过游戏和形成联想来探索和研究,组装声音或物体,并且“练习”。

  • 全套用具

使用的奥尔夫乐器是其他弦乐器,键盘乐器和打击乐器。这些工具提供了一种在音乐治疗环境中进行社交互动的手段,并鼓励孩子积极参与。此外,非音乐材料,如围巾,手偶,球,粉笔板,都在奥尔夫音乐疗法中使用的乐器中占有一席之地。儿童可以在游戏情境中使用这些材料来表达自己的音乐感。

  • 音乐的多感官方面

音乐方面,如模态,声学方面可以帮助治疗师满足孩子的需求。例如,组合模式可以帮助孩子在听到声音时感受到声音。此外,诸如让大理石沿着金属片滚动到手鼓或者演奏鼓以使球飞离它的活动不仅限于音乐的声学方面。即使孩子仍然不愿意或不能参加音乐活动,它也可以作为孩子互动的动力。