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Speech therapy

Speech therapy is a treatment for individuals with speech and language disorders to gain the ability to communicate through speech and language. Speech disorder refers to difficulties in producing words and sounds, whereas a language disorder involves troubles in understanding words and putting together sentences and ideas for communication.



Difficulties in speech and language of children may caused by conditions such as cerebral palsy, autism, developmental delays and hearing impairments. Some children may have troubles in understanding language. Some children are unable to communicate effective due to difficulty with speech despite being able to understand language. Other challenges in other areas of communications like hand gestures and facial expressions are faced by children as well.

The three main areas that speech therapy focuses are comprehension, expression and articulation. For comprehension, the therapy helps children to understand people, places, things with names and complex language as well such as spoken directions, inferred meanings and humor in terms of both verbal and non-verbal language. Besides that, expressive communication are being worked on with the goals of communicating basic wants and needs and being understood through words, signs, pictures or a communication device. As for speech articulation, this form of speech therapy focuses on the sounds rather than the content to help a child to learn the sounds of a language. Speech therapists might use assistive devices such as augmentive and alternative communication (AAC) for any means of communication to assist with speech therapy. This includes using pictures, gestures, sign language, visual aids or speech-output devices like computers.


Methods Speech Therapists use
Speech therapy (or technically Speech Language Pathology) works on a child’s understanding of language and their expression of thoughts and feelings with all of the cognitive aspects of communication, speech and language. Sessions for speech therapy comprise of modelling proper speech and using repetition exercise to improve speech and language.

While motivation can be a roadblock for children, speech games, flash cards, toys, hand puppets and reinforces of all sorts are used to keep sessions on track and encourage children to work harder. A play based approach or books stimulates communication and increase chances of special needs children with global language issues to develop language skills.During play activities, correct pronunciation, articulation and expression will be modelled by therapists to physically show a child how to move their mouths or tongue to create speech properly. In addition, speech therapists may work “inside the mouth” for articulation problems using popsicle sticks, fingers, whistles, straws and other items to help the child gain control over the muscles of the mouth, tongue and throat. For children with severe disabilities, speech therapists guide them through assistive technology, by learning how to use special communication devices, such as a computer with a voice synthesizer, or a special board covered with symbols of everyday objects and activities to which a child can point to express his or her wishes.

There are various ways to encourage speech production and they can accommodate other types of therapeutic systems. However, children who have early intervention will improve enough to not require intervention later in life. Hence, early intervention is the key for improvement as with most other therapies for special needs children.

Source(s) :
http://www.specialneeds.com/activities/general-special-needs/what-speech-therapy
http://www.mychildwithoutlimits.org/plan/common-treatments-and-therapies/speech-therapy/
http://www.specialkidstn.com/speech-therapy/
https://www.speechandlanguagekids.com/giving-voice-non-verbal-children-autism-aac-autism/

言语治疗

言语治疗是一种治疗言语和语言障碍的人,以获得通过言语和语言进行交流的能力。言语障碍是指产生单词和声音的困难,而语言障碍则涉及理解单词和将句子和思想放在一起进行交流的问题。

儿童的言语和语言困难可能由脑瘫,自闭症,发育迟缓和听力障碍等因素引起。有些孩子在理解语言方面可能会遇到麻烦。尽管也有一部分的孩子能够理解语言,但由于有言语障碍而造成他们无法进行有效沟通。儿童也面临其他沟通领域的其他挑战,如手势和面部表情。

言语治疗的三个主要领域是理解,表达和发音。对于理解这个方面,该治疗可以帮助儿童理解人名,地点,名称和复杂语言的东西,例如语言指导,推断意义和口头和非语言语言的幽默。除此之外,表达性沟通与目标——传达基本需求以及被理解将通过文字,标志,图片或通信设备一起进行。至于语音发音,这种形式的言语治疗将侧重于声音而不是内容,以帮助孩子学习语言的声音。言语治疗师可以使用诸如增强和替代通信(AAC)之类的辅助设备来进行任何通信方法以协助言语治疗。这包括使用图片、手势、手语、视觉辅助或语音输出设备,如电脑。

言语治疗师使用的方式

言语治疗(或技术上的言语病理学)通过沟通,言语和语言的所有认知方面,致力于儿童对语言的理解以及他们对思想和情感的表达。言语治疗的会话包括对正确的语音建立和使用重复练习来改善言语和语言。

虽然意志可能会成为儿童的障碍,但言语游戏,闪存卡,玩具,手偶和各种的加强措施都可用于保持治疗的正常进行,并鼓励儿童更加努力。基于游戏的方法或书籍可以激发沟通,增加特殊儿童学习语言技能的机会。在游戏活动中,正确的发音,清晰度(发音)和表达将由治疗师建立,以实际行动向孩子展示如何移动他们的嘴或舌头并恰当地创造了言语。此外,对于发音问题,言语治疗师可能会使用冰棍棒,手指,口哨,吸管和其他物品在孩子口腔内,以帮助孩子控制口腔,舌头和喉咙的肌肉。对于严重残疾儿童,言语治疗师通过学习如何使用特殊通信设备,例如语音合成器、电脑或带有日常物品符号的特殊板以及通过辅助技术表达他们的愿望,并用孩子可以指出的活动来指导他们。

其实有各种方法可以鼓励孩子的言语生成,并且可以容纳其他类型的治疗系统。然而,早期干预的儿童将得到足够的改善,不需要在以后的生活中进行干预。因此,早期干预是改善的关键,就像大多数其他针对特殊需要儿童的疗法一样。